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中英文 翻译的技巧有哪些?

   现在越 来越多人开始加入英语学习的大军中来,对于一 些英语很差的人来说,翻译英 文是一件很痛苦的事情,那么在 进行英文翻译的时候都有哪些技巧,接下来翻译公司就来为 大家简单的介绍。

  Now more and more people begin to join the army of English learning. For some poor English speakers, translating English is a painful thing. Then what skills do you have in translating English? Then the translation company will give you a brief introduction.

  1.词义选择

  1. Semantic Choice

  所谓词义选择,是指词 本来就有这个意思,问题是 要我们将其在特定场合的正确意思选出来。正确选 词是保证译文质量的重要环节,如果能 做到在词语意义和字面形式上都对等当然最好,如果不能兼顾,则取意义,舍形式。越是普通的词,越是拥 有繁多的释义和搭配,翻译过 程中的词义也就越难以确定。选词时,要注意词义的广狭、所处的语境、词义的 褒贬和感情色彩。

  The so-called choice of word meaning refers to the original meaning of a word. The problem is that we should choose the correct meaning of a word in a specific situation. Correct choice of words is an important link to ensure the quality of translation. It is of course the best way to achieve equivalence in terms of both word meaning and literal form. If we can't give consideration to both words, we should choose meaning instead of form. The more common a word is, the more it has a variety of definitions and collocations, the more difficult it is to determine the meaning of a word in the process of translation. When choosing words, we should pay attention to the broad and narrow meaning, the context, the praise and derogation of the meaning and the emotional color.

  例1

  Example 1

  原文:但通常 每个家庭都会在除夕夜团聚,一起吃年夜饭。

  Original: But usually every family will get together on New Year's Eve and have New Year's Eve dinner together.

  译文:However, New Year’s Eve is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner.

  However, New Year's Eve is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner.

  分析:“年夜饭”此处实 际就是每年一度的团圆饭,为了让 译文更符合英语国家的习惯,这里用的是annual reunion dinner,理解起来更容易。

  Analysis: "New Year's Eve" here is actually the annual reunion dinner. In order to make the translation more in line with the habits of English-speaking countries, annual reunion dinner is used here, which is easier to understand.

  例2

  Example 2

  原文:人们还 会在门上粘贴红色的对联(couplets)……译文:And doors will be decorated with red couplets…

  Original: People also paste red couplets on their doors... And doors will be decorated with red couplets.

  分析:原文中“粘贴”的意思 其实就是用对联装饰门窗,如果直 译的话表达不出真实的意图,因此这里用了“decorate”,表意更直接。

  Analysis: The original meaning of "paste" is actually to decorate doors and windows with couplets. If literal translation can not express the real intention, so here we use "decorate" to express the meaning more directly.

  2、词类转换

  2. Part-of-speech Conversion

  词类转 换是汉译英常用的一种手段。汉语的 动态性和具体性特点使其在语言运用上多用动词。英语则 因其静态性和抽象性特点在语言使用上呈现出名词化和介词化倾向。在汉译英的过程中,适当转换词性,可以使 泽文更符合英语表达习惯。

  Part-of-speech conversion is a commonly used method in Chinese-English translation. The dynamic and specific characteristics of Chinese make it use more verbs in language use. English, on the other hand, tends to be nominalized and prepositional in language use because of its static and abstract features. In the process of Chinese-English translation, proper conversion of parts of speech can make Zewen more in line with English expression habits.

  (1)动词→名词

  (1) Verb-noun

  汉语中 动词使用比较频繁,而且动 词既没有时态变化的约束,也没有 谓语动词和非谓语动词的形式之分,动词甚 至可以充当句子的各种成分。相反,英语动 词的使用受到形态变化规则的严格限制。一个句 子往往只有一个谓语动词,大量原 来应该由动词表达的概念,常需借助于名词,因为名 词比较不受形态规则变化的束缚,使用相对灵活、方便。

  Verbs are frequently used in Chinese, and verbs are neither constrained by tense changes nor divided into predicate verbs and non-predicate verbs. Verbs can even act as various components of sentences. On the contrary, the use of English verbs is strictly restricted by the rules of morphological change. A sentence often has only one predicate verb, a large number of concepts that should be expressed by verbs, often need to rely on nouns, because nouns are relatively free from the constraints of changes in morphological rules, relatively flexible and convenient to use.

  例

  example

  原文:各地欢 度春节的习俗和传统有很大差异。

  Original: The customs and traditions of celebrating the Spring Festival vary greatly from place to place.

  译文:Customs and traditions concerning the celebration of the Chinese New Year vary widely from place to place.

  Customs and traditions concerning the celebration of the Chinese New Year vary widely from place to place.

  分析:原句中“欢度”是动词,但是如 果译文中也用动词来表达,则整个 句子的结构显得罗嗦,不够整洁,所以译文中用了“celebration”来表达,使得整个甸子更匀称、清晰。

  Analysis: In the original sentence, "Huan Du" is a verb, but if the verb is also used in the translation, the structure of the whole sentence is verbose and not neat enough, so the translation uses "celebration" to express, making the whole dianzi more symmetrical and clear.

  (2)动词→介词

  (2) Verb Preposition

  介词与名词密切相关,英语名 词的广泛使用使得介词也得以频繁出现。而且英 语中有些介词本身是由动词演变而来的,具有动词的特征。因此,汉译英时,有些动 词可以用介词来表达。

  Prepositions are closely related to nouns. The widespread use of English nouns makes prepositions appear frequently. Moreover, some prepositions in English evolve from verbs and have the characteristics of verbs. Therefore, when translating from Chinese to English, some verbs can be expressed by prepositions.

  例

  example

  原文:但通常 每个家庭都会在除夕夜团聚,一起吃年夜饭。

  Original: But usually every family will get together on New Year's Eve and have New Year's Eve dinner together.

  However, New Year’s Eve is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner.

  However, New Year's Eve is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner.

  (3)动词→形容词

  (3) Verb-adjective

  汉语的 一些动词也常常可以用英语的形容词来表达,这些形 容词通常是与动词同源的词这样的译文有时比直接使用动词更地道、标准。

  Some verbs in Chinese can also be expressed by adjectives in English. These adjectives are usually homologous with verbs. Sometimes they are more authentic and standard than verbs.

  例

  example

  原文:在明朝和清朝时期(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)特别流行。

  Original: The Ming and Qing Dynasties were particularly popular during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  译文:It was widespread particularly during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

  It was widespread especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

  由于语 法结构和修辞的需要,汉语的 形容词和副词也可以转译成英语的名词。

  Due to the need of grammatical structure and rhetoric, Chinese adjectives and adverbs can also be translated into English nouns.

  例

  example

  原文……只有这 些生灵自由自在地享受着这个黄昏。

  The original... Only these creatures are free to enjoy the evening.

  译文…leaving these living things to enjoy this moment of dusk with full ease and freedom.

  Translation... Leave these living things to enjoy this moment of dusk with full ease and freedom.

  (4)名词→动词

  (4) noun-verb

  有些情况下,汉语的 名词由英语的动词表达,此时汉 语中修饰名词的形容词也随之改为英语中作状语使用的副词。

  In some cases, Chinese nouns are expressed by English verbs, and the adjectives modifying nouns in Chinese are replaced by adverbials in English.

  例

  example

  原文:各地欢 度春节的习俗和传统有很大差异。

  Original: The customs and traditions of celebrating the Spring Festival vary greatly from place to place.

  译文:Customs and traditions concerning the celebration of the Chinese New Year vary widely from place to place.

  Customs and traditions concerning the celebration of the Chinese New Year vary widely from place to place.

  分析:原文中“差异”为名词,为了符 合英文的表达习惯,译文中 将其转换为动词“vary”,原文中修饰“差异”一词的形容词“很大”转换为了副词“widely”,使译文更生动。

  Analysis: In order to conform to the conventions of English, the noun "difference" in the original text is transformed into the verb "vary", and the adjective "big" modifying the word "difference" in the original text is transformed into the adverb "wide" to make the translation more vivid.

  3、词的增补

  3. Addition of Words

  (1)语法需要

  (1) Grammatical needs

  以上是翻译公司为大家 介绍的中英翻译的技巧内容,希望对大家有所帮助。如果大 家有其他方面想要了解的话,可以来咨询我们,我们会 有专业的人士来为您解答。

  These are the skills and contents of Chinese-English translation introduced by the translation company. I hope they will be helpful to you. If you want to know anything else, you can consult us. We will have professional people to answer for you.

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